Making sense of it all. A simple reference for all the jargon of skin.
Navigating your way around the terminology, jargon and scientific referencing of the world of skin, cosmetics, wellbeing and beyond…is without doubt, a minefield.
Even with knowledge, it can be overwhelming and give us a sense of uncertainty in our decision making.
To be honest, we will struggle to define every ingredient or term you may come across, but, our hope is that by demystifying some of the language, will help empower you to make the best decisions for your wellbeing.
Our ultimate beauty glossary will break this down into an A-Z of key terms to avoid the overwhelm and form a quick reference guide.
So let’s dive in!
Don’t be put off by the word acid. These acids are “friendly” working to help reveal a more radiant, glowing complexion.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids – Glycolic / Lactic Acid / Mandelic – naturally derived from sugarcane, milk and bitter almonds respectively, are non-physical or chemical exfoliants, that help peel and resurface the outer layer (epidermis) of the skin, helping to boost cellular turnover to reveal fresh, smooth skin.
Can be naturally derived from botanical sources such as chamomile, wheat or comfrey or synthetically reproduced to alleviate overharvesting.
A skin soothing, moisturising ingredient that helps soften even more fragile and reactive skin types while helping promote healthy skin cell turnover.
The building blocks of the proteins that make up collagen and elastin — substances that give the skin its structural support. Aging and a combination of external factors (including UV light and environmental toxins) reduce the level of amino acids in the body; creams containing amino acids may help restore them.
A substance, whether naturally derived or synthetic, that provides protection from oxidative stress caused by excessive free radicals triggered by pollutants, lifestyle, stress, diet, UV etc. Antioxidants help neutralise the damage to cells which can lead to skin stress, premature ageing and more profound biological damage to cells.
The most effective application of Vitamin C is l-ascorbic acid. Notoriously unstable but potent, this power-house antioxidant is a must for skin health, boasting an array of benefits including protecting collagen and elastin, the structural integrity of the skin, fighting free radical oxidisation, supporting repair, brightening and evening skin tone while reducing hyperpigmentation. Vitamin C is consistently one of the most Googled skincare ingredients.
Found in sunscreens, it absorbs UVA to help reduce penetration and deeper set damage, but is not protective against UVB.
Naturally derived from grain, but often synthetically produced to optimise efficacy, consistency and stability; this is a skin brightening, clarifying antioxidant that helps interrupt the progression of skin discolouration to the upper layers, minimising skin hyperpigmentation and is particularly good for blemish prone skin. Although there are similarities with AHA/BHAs, this mild ingredient can actually work in combination with these acids as well as other skin brightening ingredients such as Vitamin C.
A vegan, plant-derived skin ingredient that is a potent antioxidant and helps soothe reactivity, neutralise redness and ease the damaging effects of lifestyle and environmental stress on the skin, which in turn helps reduce the ageing effects free radical imbalance such as fine lines, wrinkles, hyperpigmentation and loss of skin fitness.
Often cited as a natural alternative to retinol – but they work differently. Bakuchiol can actually help stabilise the efficacy of retinol and they can be used together to amplify effect rather than interrupt/cancel each other.
Benzophenone-3 (also known as oxybenzone) is a naturally occurring (plant flower derived chemical) UV absorber that helps scatter UVA rays. It is often used to stabilise formulations against UV light degradation, rarely used alone as a sunscreen as in isolation it offers weak shielding.
There can be controversy around the ingredient as it has a small molecule size and is lipid-friendly meaning it is highly absorbent.
Derived often from sugar beet, helps to balance skin hydration levels.
A pigment found in fruit and vegetables that is foundation for Vitamin A (retinol).
Derived from bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, grains, moss etc that can be highly effective humectants, soothe reactivity and boost the skin’s natural skin barrier function.
Beta Hydroxy Acid (also known as Salicylic Acid) an exfoliant that is suitable for even sensitive skins. BHAs are oil soluble meaning they can travel deeper into the pores to clarify and remove impurities, as well as surface resurfacing.
This term refers to the protection from UV light damage, beyond SPF which protects from UVB but offering UVA protection to ensure damage in the deeper tissues is avoided.
Also known as Niacinamide. Part of the vital Bs, this multi-functional vitamin helps support optimal skin barrier function, helps minimise the appearance of enlarged pores, uneven skin texture, fine lines while supporting a less reactive complexion and promote skin uniformity.
CBD / Cannabidiol
CBD is non-intoxicating, THC-free extract from the the flowers and buds of the cannabis sativa plant. Hemp oil is extracted from the seed of the same plant.
CBD is a phytocannabinoid that mimics the behaviours of our natural biological endocannabinoid receptors. As an adaptogen, CBD is assimilated quickly to help neutralise reactivity, soothe fragile skin and provide antioxidant protection.
A key component to the skin’s barrier functionality. Ceramides are like the cement between bricks, they are skin lipids (fats) that occur naturally and help prevent TEWL (trans epidermal water loss) so maintaining hydration and protecting from external aggressors. Ceramides, like most good things in our skin, deplete with age and damage. Replenishing them aids the strength of the exterior barrier function of the skin keeping it supple, nourished and resilient.
A red algae that is antioxidant and nutrient rich. Containing amino acids, peptides and polysaccharides, red algae can help maintain hydration levels as well as antioxidant protection.
L-Ascorbic Acid one of the most popular and effective ingredients in skincare. Rich in antioxidants to help protect skin from skin damaging free radicals caused by environmental and lifestyle skin stress, helps refine and brighten skin tone.
Efficacy testing of a finished product under laboratory conditions. The measurements are quantitative, data driven information rather than opinion.
This may measure hydration retention/moisture levels in the skin following application of the product using a corneometer for a defined period of time.
Laser profilometry measures skin ‘roughness’ to show changes in appearance following targeted application of products for fine lines and wrinkles.
These tests are required to make specific measured “claims” on the potential efficacy of a product; for example 24 hour hydration or reduces the appearance of wrinkles by x%.
A naturally occurring antioxidant that helps protect the skin from UV induced damage while also helping improve elastin and type IV collagen production. CoQ10 quality and production declines with age and skin stress from environmental and lifestyle aggressors.
The most abundant protein in our bodies, it is the building block of our bodies’ structure and strength including skin, bones, muscles, tendons and other connective tissue.
Collagen breaks down, becomes less abundant and slower to repair with time and the impact of lifestyle and environmental aggressors.
Certain treatments and active ingredients can help stimulate the skin to produce the fibroblasts required for collagen production and repair.
An ingredient or product may described as comedogenic if it is likely to clog or congest pores, conversely non comedogenic will be created to avoid congestion. This is a navigation point for those with imbalanced or problematic skin, prone to reactivity and breakouts.
CTPA (Cosmetics, Toiletries & Perfume Association) state:
“Cosmetic products sold in the UK and Europe are not tested on animals. This is true whether or not the product makes an ‘animal friendly’ claim.
The ban on animal testing of cosmetic products in the UK and EU came into effect in September 2004. It has been illegal to test cosmetic product on animals in Europe since that time. In the UK, testing of cosmetic products was banned in 1997 after a voluntary initiative by industry which led to all licences for testing cosmetic products to be withdrawn.”
The regulations in the US, Canada and the rest of the world are different and requires more consumer analysis to ensure the product adheres to their ethical stance on cruelty free.
The performance of a product is assessed and analysed for effect on the skin under the supervision of a qualified dermatologist. Tests can be varied according to the end need for claim substantiation.
The inner layer of the skin structure, beneath the epidermis containing blood vessels, connective tissue, hair follicles, sweat and oil glands, nerves etc. This supportive layer helps protect and support thermoregulation and sensation.
A synthetic polymer that forms a protective barrier to the skin to seal in moisture and gives a silky feel to the skin.
One of the most abundant proteins in the body that has the ability to stretch and recoil to help support bounce, suppleness and contour of the skin.
A moisturising treatment to help soothe, soften, hydrate and relieve dry, dehydrated or reactive skin.
Bromelain, papain and actinidin (from pineapple, papaya and banana respectively) are proteins from fruit/plants that function as enzymatic exfoliants, dissolving the bonds that allow dead keratin to cling to the skin’s surface, leading to uneven skin tone, texture and dullness. They are a milder alternative to acids.
The outer or surface layer of the skin that forms the first barrier of protection from external aggressors.
Essential Fatty Acids
These are valuable fats for good health but our bodies cannot produce them naturally, so we must supplement them through our diet, supplements or through topically applied products. EFAs are the building blocks of skin cells, fortifying the skin’s barrier function, retaining hydration, smoothing surface texture and easing the symptoms of reactivity.
The key EFAs are alpha-linoleic acid (Omega-3) and linoleic acid (Omega-6). Oleic acid (Omega-9) is technically a non-essential fatty acid as the body can produce small amounts independently.
Fish, nuts, flax, fruit, algae are all common sources of these core EFAs.
A botanically derived antioxidant that is often harvested from rice, bran or bamboo. A soothing, stabilising, well-tolerated ingredient that helps preserve actives, neutralise reactivity and protect from the onslaught of UV induced photo-ageing.
Dermal fibroblasts are cells found within the dermal skin layer, responsible for the synthesis of connective tissue such as collagen and elastin, critical in skin repair and resilience – they are the factory source of your skin’s strength.
Plant extracts that are highly concentrated antioxidants to help neutralise free radical reactivity within the skin that can lead to the signs of skin stress (texture, tone, fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmentation etc). A healthy diet will feature an array of flavonoid rich foods such as avocado, soybeans, leafy greens, berries, coffee, tea, even wine and dark chocolate! Obviously less of the latter and more of the fruit and veg!
These little blighters are the bane of our skin health.
Free radicals are unstable atoms that are produced as a natural part of cell metabolism, build up is triggered by exposure to environmental and lifestyle oxidative stress (UV, alcohol, poor diet, smoking etc). These rogues steal from healthy cells to stabilise themselves causing degradation, mutation and ageing of healthy DNA, which can lead to an array of detrimental effects; from surface skin damage to deeper medical concerns.
Sweet tooth? You may want to curb that sugar craving.
Sugar is one of the most inflammatory, damaging impacts to skin health and vitality.
Sugar molecules attach to healthy skin proteins and cause advanced glycation end products (AGEs) creating a brittleness to supple connective tissue, meaning that the health of collagen and elastin is permanently irreparable.
Glycation also causes free radical oxidative stress, culminating in loss of tonicity, sagging, wrinkles, texture change, loss of lustre and vitality.
Prevention through less high sugar food intake to keep blood sugar more stable, regular meal times and sleep patterns helps to minimise sugar craving, stress and the impact on inflammatory responses.
It may not the a “sexy” ingredient, it is often overlooked in favour of spotlight humectants like squalene or hyaluronic acid. But glycerin is a powerhouse ingredient with multiple benefits to the skin. Not only does it pull moisture from the air to maintain hydration and keep the skin barrier intact, helping to prevent trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), it also softens, smooths and adds bounce to the skin as it helps stabilise collagen!
Glycolic Acid – see AHAs
These are the body’s natural moisturisers, hydrophilic molecules that draw water into the skin to help support structural integrity by protecting vital collagen and elastin production. Hyaluronic Acid is a key example. (see below)
Also known as cytokines, growth factors were discovered in the 1950s by two scientists who latterly received a Nobel Prize in 1986; these proteins or polypeptides are produced naturally within the body by skin cells to help regulate healthy cells, signal repair, stimulate collagen production and maintain homeostasis. Essential Growth Factors applied topically, can help “trick” the skin to promote prompt cellular rejuvenation, stimulate reparative function and reinforce barrier function.
A naturally occurring and vital component of healthy skin composition, this core GAG is a humectant that enables skin to maintain a stable, firm, supple and resilient character. Hyaluronic Acid has the incredible ability to attract and absorb 1000x its own weight in moisture, meaning it is vital to help the skin maintain a balanced hydration, achieve a supple, plump texture which can be damaged through oxidative stress.
Used to convey the intention of the product to minimise the risk of irritation due to the use of well tolerated ingredients.
There is however, no guarantee to a complete absence of risk as individual reactivity is unique and impossible to eliminate in totality.
There is some caution around the impression this term as it may be misinterpreted by the consumer.
An increase in the skin pigment melanin. This may be caused by:
- Melasma – often triggered by hormonal change, particularly during pregnancy.
- Sunspots – caused by UV exposure.
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation – caused by inflammation or injury to the skin (aggravated breakouts for example).
A group of moisturising ingredients that can be naturally or synthetically derived, that draw moisture from the air or deep within the dermis to plump, hydrate and protect the skin.
Rich in essential fatty acids, this emollient plant oil helps soothe and nourish dry skin. As it has a profile similar to sebum, it is not ideal for those prone to congestion and breakouts.
While fermented mushrooms may not sound like an answer to skin brightening, Kojic Acid a by-product of creating sake wine and soy sauce; is a well-tolerated, naturally derived acid that is shown to inhibit the UV-activation of the enzyme tyrosinase, that leads to hyperpigmentation.
Kojic acid also provides antioxidant protection, along with having a soothing effect on reactive skin.
A gentle AHA derived from milk, though synthetic versions are also available; that helps exfoliate even the most fragile skins while also moisturising the skin.
Derived from sheep’s wool this semi-occlusive emollient creates a shield over the skin that enables the skin to hydrate within, halting TEWL, while also allowing skin to breathe. With a lipid profile similar to our own, it mimics our skin’s healing ability.
While Lanolin is clearly not Vegan, it is vegetarian and involved no cruelty in harvesting but is a natural by-product of sheep shearing.
Derived from tomatoes, watermelon, papaya and other red fruit and vegetables; lycopene is an antioxidant with a powerful capacity to neutralise the negative impact of free radicals and the damage of oxidative stress on skin’s structural integrity. Our bodies cannot produce lycopene naturally so dietary and topical application is key. Lycopene helps inhibit the production of the enzyme collagenase which breaks down our natural collagen, helping to keep skin more firm, contoured and defined.
Derived from bitter almonds, this AHA has a larger molecular weight so penetrates more slowly, making it suitable for those seeking less intense application of AHA. Particularly suitable for darker skin tones and those prone to breakout scarring, this gentle powerhouse will effectively clarify dull skin and smooth unevenness, without affecting melanin production. Skin will also benefit from brighter, plumper texture due to the collagen boosting ability of mandelic acid.
Not to be layered with Retinols.
Responsible for producing pigmentation within the eyes, skin and hair.
Melanin is produced as a defence to UVA exposure, it is a vital part of our protection system against DNA damage from oxidative stress caused by UV exposure. Areas of deeper pigmentation are caused by overproduction of melanin, which may be due to inflammation, skin trauma or UV oxidative stress for example.
Situated deep in the basal cells of epidermal layer of the skin. Melanocytes are responsible for producing pigmentation for skin, hair and eyes.
Sometimes referred to as “the mask of pregnancy” this deepening of pigmentation is often due to hormonal change, but can also be triggered by UV exposure.
While the thought of bacteria living on our skin is not something we relish…this is part of our skin’s formidable defence system, critical protection from external pathogens.
This finely balanced epidermal eco-system hosts trillions of microbes, bacteria and skin flora that form an army of living organisms relentlessly rebalancing our skin barrier, neutralising reactivity to reduce the impact of damage to barrier function.
Also known as “challenge testing” this is laboratory test to establish the robustness of a product’s preservative system to protect from harmful microorganisms that are present or introduced through cross-product contamination in normal use.
These tests are conducted over a period of around 28 days at room temperature to replicate shelf-life, with a repeated introduction of microorganisms to the product sample at regular intervals to monitor resistance.
Vitamin B3 Niacinamide (also known as nicotinamide) helps to minimise the appearance of pores, refine skin texture, brighten, tighten and help soothe reactive and unsettled skin.
Niacinimide helps minimise moisture loss in the skin, restoring surface resilience and enabling the skin’s natural moisturising function to work optimally, boosting ceramide production.
Occlusive ingredients are used when skin barrier function is impaired and unstable. Skin that is severly dehydrated or dry, irritated and prone to reactivity may benefit from an occlusive barrier topically applied to seal in moisture to support the skin in natural repair.
Omega Fatty Acids
See Essential Fatty Acids
A widely used, well tolerated and established group of preservatives including: butylparaben, isobutylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben and ethylparaben.
Over the past decade or so, parabens have become shrouded in controversy. Some of it flawed, some of it media sensationalised, some of it still uncertain.
The point to remember is that it is the dose that makes the poison, the principle of toxicology. While parabens remain safe for use at the recommended dosage levels, the breadth of their use is a key reason why many brands have chosen to formulate without them due to our extensive and cumulative exposure to this safe preservative.
Peptides are short chain amino acids that are the building blocks of protein such as elastin, collagen and keratin. Peptides applied topically, are messengers to stimulate cells to perform a specific function to combat a skin concern (dullness/fine lines/hyperpigmentation/glycation etc), yet still most recognised for their collagen boosting prowess, bringing back bounce, firmness, barrier resilience and uniformity.
Optimal pH for skin is between 4.7-5.75. pH 7 is considered neutral (water) – below 7 is acidic and above is alkaline; therefore the skin is mildly acidic.
The pH is important because imbalance and fluctuation in levels causes a compromise to the acid mantle, the thin barrier on the surface of the skin that helps maintain the equilibrium of your skin. Disturbance to the acid mantle can create issues such as dehydration and reactivity. External factors such as environmental exposure, incorrect product usage, exposure to temperature fluctuation etc, can impact pH levels.
Prebiotics are the food that fuel probiotics (see below). By applying prebiotics topically, they can help in a more directly controlled way to promote healthy balance of microorganisms.
Examples of prebiotics are:
- Xylitol a humectant to help maintain moisture levels in the skin
- Inulin another humectant that is especially suited to more reactive skins
- Konjac glucomannan from the konjac plant root shown to help inhibit the bacteria that causes acne
An essential part of our skin microbiome, these helpful bacteria or microorganisms, maintain balance that helps support the integrity of the skin barrier in defence against the onslaught of daily aggressors. A healthy microbiome with the skin barrier function intact, enables skin to repair and self-regulate; aiding absorption of actives, soothing reactivity and optimising skin vitality.
Known as a plasticiser, this is a far reaching chemical that has gained growing scrutiny due to breadth of daily use in consumer products and studies that have shown some evidence of endocrine disruption (hormones).
Used in cosmetics and toiletries, phthalates help strengthen and bind, or stabilise products so they can last longer. They may appear in anything from a shampoo to a nail polish. Not all phthalates are banned, there are many that appear in products from toys to flooring, plus anything in-between. Limiting use is more feasible with enhanced labelling by brands, citing phthalate free for clarity of communication.
A polyphenolic antioxidant derived from red grapes, that not only neutralises the impact of free radical damage that causes damage to healthy skin cells; it also helps proliferate naturally produced antioxidants making it both reparative and preventative.
The “do it all” skin hero ingredient. A derivative of Vitamin A, a type of retinoid, Retinol is effective at refining a number of topical surface concerns such as hyperpigmentation, fine lines, wrinkles and even acne prone complexions.
It works by accelerating skin cell turnover by gently exfoliating the surface to stimulate fresh cells and bring a more vibrant and even appearance to the skin.
The group of retinoids in their various strengths of efficacy from prescription Tretinoin to the weaker retinaldehydes.
Due to the potential of reactivity of some of derivatives, tolerance must be build up in application and it is recommended that retinoids are used in the PM, to avoid UV sensitivity.
Always wear SPF when cycling Retinoids.
Avoid other exfoliators in your cycle such as AHAs and BHAs to avoid over stimulation to the skin.
A BHA that helps exfoliate skin, control sebum balance and helps refine the appearance of blemish prone skin. Derived from willow bark, this is a natural plant extract that helps dissolve congestion in the pores to help eliminate the opportunity for unhealthy bacteria to flourish that can lead to breakouts.
AHAs are water-soluble, they clear the surface efficiently while a BHA like Salicylic Acid is oil-soluble, it works deeper within the skin’s lamellar structure to help clarify by dissolving dirt and debris.
Salicylic Acid can be used in varying concentrations from lower cleansers and toners for daily use, to more potent dosages in targeted serums. Avoid overuse and be cautious with drier skin types.
Silicone gives slip and glide to product formulations when used in skincare and cosmetics. It gives a silky skin-feel in application.
Silicones have received some negative attention with regards to clogging pores. Silicones sit on the surface of the skin, they will allow actives to penetrate but may slow things down. They are volatile, which means that initial texture in application will become imperceptible and certainly won’t sit below the surface of the skin, but sit on the surface until cleansed.
Sodium Lauryl Sulphate is a surfactant used in toiletries and household products. It gives products the rich lather that we have become accustomed to associated with “clean”.
The concerns for SLS and other sulphates relates to a perception of irritancy, imbalance of natural skin oils and environmental implications as it is derived from petroleum, which impacts greenhouse gases but also in the water ecosystems in rinsing.
Only UVB (short rays – Burn) are protected by SPF.
The protection works by calculating a guideline measurement of how well your skin is protected from UVB rays, giving an estimated extension to your natural protection.
If your skin burns in 12 minutes – SPF 30 is 30 x 12 minutes = 360 minutes protection = 6 hours.
SUNFACT: There is no SPF provides 100% protection.
- SPF 30 blocks 97% of UVB
- SPF 50 blocks 98% of UVB
- SPF 100 blocks 99% of UVB
Application is key.
Underpinning all this is that your actual safeguarding is entirely dependent on the correct application volume which if inadequate, we are often getting less than the protection printed on pack.
When SPF ratings are tested, there is a specific unit measurement used of product used to assess the rating. In reality we rarely replicate this. A specific UV shield product is the last stage of skincare, following your moisturiser and can then be carried with you and topped up appropriately every couple of hours.
A biomimetic derivative of squalene that imitates our natural oils to help prevent dehydration, maintain skin elasticity and neutralise the impact of free radical damage. Naturally extracted from olives or sugar cane fermentation, phytosqualane is stable, skin-friendly and lightweight making it suitable for all skin personalities.
A natural component of our natural skin oils (around 12%), this vital lipid depletes with age but is a critical to helps lubricate and protect skin.
A group of ingredients used as cleaning agents in toiletries and household products.
Many brands consciously avoid these ingredients that have built negative associations and uncertainties, though there is nothing conclusive to demonstrate specific harm from them in the interests of safeguarding their customers’ interests and preferences, while debates continue.
The shortened reference for surface active agent, used to emulsify dirt, oils, fats etc in cleansers to lift surface debris that clings to the skin and dulls skin radiance.
Sodium Laureth Sulfate is a milder surfactant, that is less prone to irritation than SLS. Can be derived from coconuts, or synthetically created. Used in skin, body and hair care products to create a lather to aid cleansing.
The purpose of stability testing is to challenge the integrity of the formula under different storage conditions for a period that reflects an acceptable shelf life.
Stability accelerates the ageing process of a formula to assess the degradation of the texture, fragrance, colour, pH and overall quality of performance over a period of 12 weeks testing at elevated temperatures (37-45o), room temp (20-25o) and 4o to provide an equivalent result of 30 months real-time at 20°c.
A natural mineral found in the earth that acts to thicken and opacify products, but also as a key sunscreen agent protecting from UVA and UVB rays.
Titanium dioxide sits on the skin’s surface and does not penetrate the barrier. It is mild and therefore ideal for more reactive skin types.
A synthetic derivative of amino acid lysine, powerhouse tranexamic acid is extremely effective at brightening skin by fading hyperpigmentation, melasma, acne scarring, as well as preventing future damage occurring.
Unlike retinol, this is an ingredient more suited to all skin types and can be used daily, even alongside other brightening ingredients like retinol.
UVA / UVB
UVB – think B for BURN. Causes the immediate skin effect in reddening of the skin.
UVB is short wave radiation which affects the outermost layers of skin. The intensity of UVB varies seasonally, hourly and geographically. A significant amount of UVB is absorbed by the ozone layer and blocked by glass.
UVA – think A for AGEING. Long wave radiation can penetrate glass, even on an overcast day.
UVA is believed to contribute around 95% of the UV radiation that reaches Earth. UVA damages deeper down, beyond the dermis and may take years to show damage.
Both UVA and UVB cause cumulative effects with time, triggering an array of highly reactive free radicals which run riot around our bodies, causing oxidative stress that leads to fragility, inflammation and premature signs of photo-ageing e.g. wrinkles and hyperpigmentation.
This refers to products that are formulated without any animal derivatives. This includes ingredients such as beeswax, honey, milk, lanolin. Although none of these ingredients technically harm the animal, they are nonetheless involving the processing of animals.
Vitamins are abundant in skincare. Often they may be known by alternative names such as retinol (A), Niacinamide (B3), Panthenol (B5), Biotin (B7), Tocopherol (E), Ascorbic Acid (C).
Essential vitamins play a crucial role in skin health through strengthening, stimulating and repairing the skin.
Like titanium dioxide, this is a natural mineral found in the earth that acts to thicken and opacify products, but also as a key sunscreen agent protecting from UVA and UVB rays.
Gentle enough for the most delicate skins, zinc oxide provides the broadest protection of UV protection but also helps balance sebum, boost collagen and stimulate the skin’s natural reparative processes.